Monday 22nd, January 2024, is a historical moment for India. On that day, Ayodhya Ram Mandir’s Ram Lalla idol consecration took place. Ayodhya Ram Mandir, an ambitious project idea for over 50 years, could become reality in January 2024. The Ram Mandir with as Estimated Project Budget of Rs 1,800 crore is one among the most expensive projects in recent times. To the Consecration ceremony, there were 7,000 attendees from across the world including famous personalities, industrialists and celebrities. This specific case study describes the Ayodhya Ram Mandir Project inception, planning, execution, risk management and innovative techniques used in project implementation.

Project Inception: The Construction of Ram Mandir Started on August 05, 2020, with laying of the foundation stone in Ayodhya. In order to Carry out the Construction and Continue Operations Sri Ram Janmabhoomi Teerth Kshetra Trust (SRJBTK) has been setup. L&T (Larsen & Toubro) is the main contractor for the construction of the temple; and Tata Consulting Engineers has been appointed as Project Management Consultant for this project. IIT, Madras is also one among the advisers to the project. Historically, Project Discussions were there for over 15 years with L&T.

Project Planning: During the Project Planning Stage itself 3D animation (simulated) films of the temple were developed. The project started in August 2020; was initially planned to be completed by 2025. The allotted budge for the project was Rs.1,800 crore. Following are several components of Project Plan:

  1. Project Feasibility Study: In Order to carry out Project Feasibility Study, an Eight Member expert committee was setup by the Temple Trust; based on the expert committee Recommendations only Actual Temple Construction started in 2020.
  2. Project Dimensions: The temple land was around 70 acres; 70% of the land was proposed to be kept green forever. The length of ground floor (east-west) was around 380 feet; and the width was (north-south) around 250 feet; the height of the Garbhgrih was 181 feet. The temple was planned to be three storied; and each floor will be of height 20 feet. The temple will have overall 392 pillars and 44 gates.
  3. Project Cost: The project initial planned budget was around Rs. 1800 crore. Overall, the Mandir Trust Received Rs 3,600 crore in donations; 51.4% is spent on this Mandir Construction Project. Remain funds will be utilized in Operations, and other temple capsule projects.
  4. Human Resources: The project used 150 engineers and thousands for workers.
  5. Raw Material: For Mandir Garbhgrih, marble was brought from Rajasthan Makrana hills; As on May 2022, some of the white marble from Rajasthan was reaching Ayodhya. The Plinth area of the temple needed 17,000 granite blocks, which were sourced from Telangana and Karnataka. The mandir was built with Pink Sandstones from Bansi-Paharpur region in Rajasthan Bharatpur District.
  6. Temple Design: Followed Nagara Style Architecture; it uses 360 pillars made of stone in main areas;
  7. Strong Foundation: The temple has 14-meter-thick Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) underneath; which gives a feel of artificial rock. On top of it, 21 feet high plinth made of granite protects the temple from soil moisture.                 
  8. Historical Aspects: In order to protect the history, the authorities saved “Time Capsule” underneath temple at a depth of 2,000 feet; which can serve the historical purpose and also educational purposes.

Project Execution: During Project Planning Stage (in May 2020), The Garbhgrih was initially planned to make it available for worship by December 2023; however, it could complete and made it available for worship by January 2024.

  • During Project Execution Time, Every Month Mandir Committee met for 2 to 3 days to monitor and track the progress of work along with engineers and architects; minute details were also discussed during tracking. 
  • Innovative Techniques: Temple Construction used Innovative techniques such as using stones, instead of iron, steel and cement for construction. Stone has better durability to compare with other construction material. The temple used non-reflection mechanism developed by CSIR-Building Research Institute (CBRI) to direct the sun light to fall on Lord Ram Idol during Sri Rama Navami time, as special spiritual attraction to devotees; which was another scientific innovation.

Project Risk Management: Project Design and Construction were in such a way that Temple could withstand for over 1,000 years; it can resist strongest earthquakes and intense flooding as well. The project encountered unique challenge of maintaining temperature of self-compacting concrete at 18 degrees below ambient temperature during pouring; for this purpose onsite ice crushing plants were used; and foundation was filled during nights in order to minimize effect of external temperatures.            

Operations and Going Further: As on January 2024, GoingFurther both State and Union Governments want to call Ayodhya as “The Land of Sree Ram” in order to attract millions of tourists from across the country and the world. They would like to keep Ayodhya on World Tourism Map in the years to come. To carry out of the day to day operations, Pilgrims Facility Center was planned with capacity of 25,000 lockers and healthcare facilities. Meanwhile, UP government allotted Rs 85,000 crore in order to develop Ayodhya in the coming 10 years with a Master Plan. These temple project investments, and UP government investments are going to generate future economic activity in the region; and they are going to contribute to the tax income and also to the tourism income of the state.

As we can see there is more Planning. “Meticulous planning is important for flawless implementation for any Project”. In future, Ayodhya can be on World Tourism Map attracting tourists and pilgrims from India and also across the world; this can contribute significantly to UP GDP, which is in-line with the UP’s Ambitious plan of becoming One of the Top-5 Contributing States to India GDP.

Hope, there is something to learn from Project Management Point of View, from my writing.

Thank You,

Best Wishes,

Dr.Goparaju Purna Sudhakar, PhD, PMP



  1. Anand, A. (2024), “Ram Temple a Reality, More on Cards for Ayodhya: How govt Plans to Put ‘Land of Sri Ram’ on World Tourism Map”, Live Mint, January 23, 2024.             
  2. ANI (2022), “Construction of Ram Mandir in Ayodhya is in Full Swing: Temple Trust”, ANI News, May 24, 2022      
  3. ETOnline (2024), “Ram Mandir Inauguration: Rs 1,800 crore Temple’s Construction Plan started 15 Years ago with L&T”, The Economic Times, January 20, 2024.
  4. Kapoor, S. (2024), “Ayodhya Ram Mandir: How Much Money was Spent and What Does UP Stand to Gain”,          The Economic Times, January 22, 2024.
  5. Mishra, A. (2020), “Ram Temple in Ayodhya: Experts’ Panel to Review All, from Design to Construction”, Indian Express, December 15, 2020. 
  6. Pankaj, J. (2024), “Ayodhya Ram Mandir: The Cost and the Funding”, The Hindu Business Line, January 25, 2024.
  7. Tripathi, S. (2024), “Ayodhya Ram Mandir: How Science will Ensure the Temple Stands for 1,000 years”, India Today, January 22, 2024.

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